References

Articles are categorized and listed most to least recent. They may also appear in more than one section.

 

Primary Care:

Kallumpuram S, Sudhir Kumar CT, Khan B, Gavins V, Khan A, Iliffe S. Targeted case finding for dementia in primary care: Surrey Downs dementia diagnosis project. BMJ Qual Improv Rep. 2015 Dec 9;4(1). pii: u209827.w4086. doi: 10.1136/bmjquality.u209827.w4086. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26893884.

 

Trongsakul S. Correlation between cognitive impairment and depressive mood of Thai elderly with type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting. Malays Fam Physician. 2015 Apr 30;10(1):11-8. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26425290; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4567888.

 

Holsinger T, Plassman BL, Stechuchak KM, Burke JR, Coffman CJ, Williams JW Jr. Stability of Diagnoses of Cognitive Impairment, Not Dementia in a Veterans Affairs Primary Care Population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Jun;63(6):1105-11. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13455. Epub 2015 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 26032518.

 

Trongsakul S, Lambert R, Clark A, Wongpakaran N, Cross J. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015 May;15(5):594-600. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12318. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25155468.

 

Yokomizo JE, Simon SS, Bottino CM. Cognitive screening for dementia in primary care: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2014 Nov;26(11):1783-804. doi: 10.1017/S1041610214001082. Epub 2014 Jul 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 25023857.

 

Anderson K, Willmore C, Doran E, Oki N, Vonnahme J, Gates BJ. Cognitive and literacy screening as predictors of ability to fill a pillbox using two pillbox assessment scoring methods. Consult Pharm. 2014;29(5):304-16. doi: 10.4140/TCP.n.2014.304. PubMed PMID: 24849688.

 

Carnero-Pardo C, Cruz-Orduña I, Espejo-Martínez B, Martos-Aparicio C, López-Alcalde S, Olazarán J. Utility of the mini-cog for detection of cognitive impairment in primary care: data from two Spanish studies. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;2013:285462. doi: 10.1155/2013/285462. Epub 2013 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 24069544; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3771448.

 

Sinclair AJ, Gadsby R, Hillson R, Forbes A, Bayer AJ. Brief report: Use of the Mini-Cog as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in diabetes in primary care. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Apr;100(1):e23-5. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Jan 23. PubMed PMID: 23352579.

 

Holsinger T, Plassman BL, Stechuchak KM, Burke JR, Coffman CJ, Williams JW Jr. Screening for cognitive impairment: comparing the performance of four instruments in primary care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Jun;60(6):1027-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03967.x. Epub 2012 May 30. PubMed PMID: 22646750.

 

McCarten JR, Anderson P, Kuskowski MA, McPherson SE, Borson S, Dysken MW. Finding dementia in primary care: the results of a clinical demonstration project. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Feb;60(2):210-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03841.x. PubMed PMID: 22332672.

Fuchs A, Wiese B, Altiner A, Wollny A, Pentzek M. Cued recall and other cognitive tasks to facilitate dementia recognition in primary care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Jan;60(1):130-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03765.x. Epub 2011 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 22150245.

 

McCarten JR, Anderson P, Kuskowski MA, McPherson SE, Borson S. Screening for cognitive impairment in an elderly veteran population: acceptability and results using different versions of the Mini-Cog. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Feb;59(2):309-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03249.x. PubMed PMID: 21314650.

 

Kamenski G, Dorner T, Lawrence K, Psota G, Rieder A, Schwarz F, Sepandj A, Spiegel W, Strotzka S. Detection of dementia in primary care: comparison of the original and a modified Mini-Cog Assessment with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Ment Health Fam Med. 2009 Dec;6(4):209-17. PubMed PMID: 22477912; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2873877.

 

Anderson K, Jue SG, Madaras-Kelly KJ. Identifying patients at risk for medication mismanagement: using cognitive screens to predict a patient’s accuracy in filling a pillbox. Consult Pharm. 2008 Jun;23(6):459-72. PubMed PMID: 18764676.

 

Borson S, Scanlan J, Hummel J, Gibbs K, Lessig M, Zuhr E. Implementing routine cognitive screening of older adults in primary care: process and impact on physician behavior. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Jun;22(6):811-7. Epub 2007 Apr 20. Erratum in: J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Aug;22(8):1224. PubMed PMID: 17447100; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2219855.

 

Milne A, Culverwell A, Guss R, Tuppen J, Whelton R. Screening for dementia in primary care: a review of the use, efficacy and quality of measures. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008 Oct;20(5):911-26. doi: 10.1017/S1041610208007394. Epub 2008 Jun 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 18533066.

 

Brodaty H, Low LF, Gibson L, Burns K. What is the best dementia screening instrument for general practitioners to use? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 May;14(5):391-400. Review. PubMed PMID: 16670243.

 

Borson S, Scanlan JM, Watanabe J, Tu SP, Lessig M. Improving identification of cognitive impairment in primary care. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;21(4):349-55. PubMed PMID: 16534774.

 

Lorentz WJ, Scanlan JM, Borson S. Brief screening tests for dementia. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Oct;47(8):723-33. Review. PubMed PMID: 12420650.

 

Other clinical settings:

 

Cardiac/circulatory

Tasmoc A, Donciu MD, Veisa G, Nistor I, Covic A. Increased arterial stiffness predicts cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients. Hemodial Int. 2016 Feb 9. doi: 10.1111/hdi.12406. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26861856.

 

Yzeiraj E, Tam DM, Gorodeski EZ. Management of Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2016 Jan;18(1):4. doi: 10.1007/s11936-015-0425-7. PubMed PMID: 26747626.

 

Patel A, Parikh R, Howell EH, Hsich E, Landers SH, Gorodeski EZ. Mini-cog performance: novel marker of post discharge risk among patients hospitalized for heart failure. Circ Heart Fail. 2015 Jan;8(1):8-16. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.114.001438. Epub 2014 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 25477431.

 

Delirium

Ketterer MW, Alaali Y, Yessayan L, Jennings J. “Alert and Oriented × 3?” Correlates of Mini-Cog Performance in a Post/Nondelirious Intensive Care Unit Sample. Psychosomatics. 2015 Oct 26. pii: S0033-3182(15)00165-6. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2015.10.008. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26805587.

 

Zeng L, Josephson SA, Fukuda KA, Neuhaus J, Douglas VC. A Prospective Comparison of Informant-based and Performance-based Dementia Screening Tools to Predict In-Hospital Delirium. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2015 Oct-Dec;29(4):312-6. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0000000000000066. PubMed PMID: 25350550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4411195.

 

Korc-Grodzicki B, Sun SW, Zhou Q, Iasonos A, Lu B, Root JC, Downey RJ, Tew WP. Geriatric Assessment as a Predictor of Delirium and Other Outcomes in Elderly Patients With Cancer. Ann Surg. 2015 Jun;261(6):1085-90. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000000742. PubMed PMID: 24887981.

 

Brooks P, Spillane JJ, Dick K, Stuart-Shor E. Developing a strategy to identify and treat older patients with postoperative delirium.AORN J. 2014 Feb;99(2):257-73; quiz 274-6. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2013.12.009. PubMed PMID: 24472589.

 

Alagiakrishnan K, Marrie T, Rolfson D, Coke W, Camicioli R, Duggan D, Launhardt B, Fisher B, Gordon D, Hervas-Malo M, Magee B. Simple cognitive testing (Mini-Cog) predicts in-hospital delirium in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 Feb;55(2):314-6. PubMed PMID: 17302678.

 

Diabetes

Trongsakul S, Lambert R, Clark A, Wongpakaran N, Cross J. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015 May;15(5):594-600. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12318. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25155468.

 

Crosby-Nwaobi RR, Sivaprasad S, Amiel S, Forbes A. The relationship between diabetic retinopathy and cognitive impairment. Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct;36(10):3177-86. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2141. Epub 2013 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 23633523; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3781499.

 

Sinclair AJ, Gadsby R, Hillson R, Forbes A, Bayer AJ. Brief report: Use of the Mini-Cog as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in diabetes in primary care. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Apr;100(1):e23-5. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Jan 23. PubMed PMID: 23352579.

 

Age Related Macular Degeneration:

Al-Salem KM, Schaal S. Mini-cognitive testing in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Retina. 2014 May;34(5):868-73. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000006. PubMed PMID: 24756035.

 

Health Literacy

Sequeira SS, Eggermont LH, Silliman RA, Bickmore TW, Henault LE, Winter MR, Nelson K, Paasche-Orlow MK. Limited health literacy and decline in executive function in older adults. J Health Commun. 2013;18 Suppl 1:143-57. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2013.825673. PubMed PMID: 24093352; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3807941.

 

Yost KJ, DeWalt DA, Lindquist LA, Hahn EA. The association between health literacy and indicators of cognitive impairment in a diverse sample of primary care patients. Patient Educ Couns. 2013 Nov;93(2):319-26. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2013.07.006. Epub 2013 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 23932515; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3802526.

 

Chew LD, Bradley KA, Flum DR, Cornia PB, Koepsell TD. The impact of low health literacy on surgical practice. Am J Surg. 2004 Sep;188(3):250-3. PMID: 15450829

 

Cancer

Ketelaars L, Pottel L, Lycke M, Goethals L, Ghekiere V, Santy L, Boterberg T, Van Den Noortgate N, Pottel H, Debruyne PR. Use of the Freund clock drawing test within the Mini-Cog as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in elderly patients with or without cancer. J Geriatr Oncol. 2013 Apr;4(2):174-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jgo.2012.10.175. Epub 2012 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 24071542.

 

Cognitive impairment and surgical/injury outcomes/frailty

Maxwell CA. Screening hospitalized injured older adults for cognitive impairment and pre-injury functional impairment. Appl Nurs Res. 2013 Aug;26(3):146-50. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2013.03.003. Epub 2013 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 23639524.

 

Robinson TN, Wu DS, Pointer L, Dunn CL, Cleveland JC Jr, Moss M. Simple frailty score predicts postoperative complications across surgical specialties. Am J Surg. 2013 Oct;206(4):544-50. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2013.03.012. Epub 2013 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 23880071; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3788864.

 

Long LS, Shapiro WA, Leung JM. A brief review of practical preoperative cognitive screening tools. Can J Anaesth. 2012 Aug;59(8):798-804. doi: 10.1007/s12630-012-9737-1. Epub 2012 May 26. Review. PubMed PMID: 22638676; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3711831.

 

Robinson TN, Wu DS, Pointer LF, Dunn CL, Moss M. Preoperative cognitive dysfunction is related to adverse postoperative outcomes in the elderly. J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Jul;215(1):12-7; discussion 17-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.02.007. Epub 2012 May 22. PubMed PMID: 22626912; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3383613.

 

Robinson TN, Eiseman B, Wallace JI, Church SD, McFann KK, Pfister SM, Sharp TJ, Moss M. Redefining geriatric preoperative assessment using frailty, disability and co-morbidity. Ann Surg. 2009 Sep;250(3):449-55. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181b45598. PubMed PMID: 19730176.

 

Forti P, Maioli F, Zagni E, Lucassenn T, Montanari L, Maltoni B, Luca Pirazzoli G, Bianchi G, Zoli M. The physical phenotype of frailty for risk stratification of older medical inpatients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014 Dec;18(10):912-8. doi: 10.1007/s12603-014-0493-5. PubMed PMID: 25470808.

 

Robinson TN, Wallace JI, Wu DS, Wiktor A, Pointer LF, Pfister SM, Sharp TJ, Buckley MJ, Moss M. Accumulated frailty characteristics predict postoperative discharge institutionalization in the geriatric patient. J Am Coll Surg. 2011 Jul;213(1):37-42; discussion 42-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2011.01.056. Epub 2011 Mar 23. PubMed PMID: 21435921; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3132184.

 

Miscellaneous

Tret’iakov SV, Cheprasova MI. [Some aspects of cognitive functions in chronic intoxication by organic solvents]. Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2014;(3):31-5. Russian. PubMed PMID: 25073348.

 

Miller AL, Min LC, Diehl KM, Cron DC, Chan CL, Sheetz KH, Terjimanian MN, Sullivan JA, Palazzolo WC, Wang SC, Hall KE, Englesbe MJ. Analytic morphomics corresponds to functional status in older patients. J Surg Res. 2014 Nov;192(1):19-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2014.06.011. Epub 2014 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 25015750; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4188716.

 

Geller EJ, Crane AK, Wells EC, Robinson BL, Jannelli ML, Khandelwal CM, Connolly A, Parnell BA, Matthews CA, Dumond JB, Busby-Whitehead J. Effect of anticholinergic use for the treatment of overactive bladder on cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Clin Drug Investig. 2012 Oct 1;32(10):697-705. doi: 10.2165/11635010-000000000-00000. PubMed PMID: 22873491; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3572901.

 

Woon FL, Dunn CB, Hopkins RO. Predicting cognitive sequelae in survivors of critical illness with cognitive screening tests. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Aug 15;186(4):333-40. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201112-2261OC. Epub 2012 Jun 14. PubMed PMID: 22700858.

 

Wilber ST, Lofgren SD, Mager TG, Blanda M, Gerson LW. An evaluation of two screening tools for cognitive impairment in older emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2005 Jul;12(7):612-6. PubMed PMID: 15995092.

 

Community Applications:

Fage BA, Chan CC, Gill SS, Noel-Storr AH, Herrmann N, Smailagic N, Nikolaou V, Seitz DP. Mini-Cog for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia and other dementias within a community setting. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 3;2:CD010860. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010860.pub2. Review. PubMed PMID: 25922857.

 

Bayley PJ, Kong JY, Mendiondo M, Lazzeroni LC, Borson S, Buschke H, Dean M, Fillit H, Frank L, Schmitt FA, Peschin S, Finkel S, Austen M, Steinberg C, Ashford JW. Findings from the National Memory Screening Day program. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Feb;63(2):309-14. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13234. Epub 2015 Jan 30. PubMed PMID: 25643739.

 

Demons JL, Chenna S, Callahan KE, Davis BL, Kearsley L, Sink KM, Watkins FS, Williamson JD, Atkinson HH. Utilizing a Meals on Wheels program to teach falls risk assessment to medical students. Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2014;35(4):409-20. doi: 10.1080/02701960.2014.930033. Epub 2014 Aug 21. PubMed PMID: 24905192.

 

Lin JS, O’Connor E, Rossom RC, Perdue LA, Burda BU, Thompson M, Eckstrom E. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: An Evidence Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Nov. Available From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174643/ PubMed PMID: 24354019.

 

Simning A, Conwell Y, van Wijngaarden E. Cognitive impairment in public housing residents living in Western New York. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Mar;49(3):477-85. doi: 10.1007/s00127-013-0712-0. Epub 2013 May 26. PubMed PMID: 23708200; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3796150.

 

Kozar-Westman M, Troutman-Jordan M, Nies MA. Successful aging among assisted living community older adults. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2013 Sep;45(3):238-46. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12027. Epub 2013 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 23590523.

 

Tappen RM, Rosselli M, Engstrom G. Use of the MC-FAQ and MMSE-FAQ in cognitive screening of older African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;20(11):955-62. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31825d0935. PubMed PMID: 22996060.

 

Laganà L, Zarankin K. A cross-sectional study on health and physical functioning in relation to coping strategies among community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women. BMC Womens Health. 2010 Mar 30;10:10. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-10-10. PubMed PMID: 20350331; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2876066.

 

Setter SM, Neumiller JJ, Weeks DL, Borson S, Scanlan JM, Sonnett TE. Screening for undiagnosed cognitive impairment in homebound older adults. Consult Pharm. 2009 Apr;24(4):299-305. PubMed PMID: 19555140.

 

Scanlan JM, Binkin N, Michieletto F, Lessig M, Zuhr E, Borson S. Cognitive impairment, chronic disease burden, and functional disability: a population study of older Italians. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;15(8):716-24. Epub 2007 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 17567931.

 

Michieletto F, Binkin N, Saugo M, Boorson S, Scanlan J; Gruppo Studio Argento. [Use of the Mini-Cog test as a screening method for dementia in the Italian population: the Argento Study results]. Ig Sanita Pubbl. 2006 Mar-Apr;62(2):159-72. Italian. PubMed PMID: 17206187.

 

Lourenço RA, Filho Ribeiro ST. The accuracy of the Mini-Cog in screening low-educated elderly for dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 Feb;54(2):376-7; author reply 377-8. PubMed PMID: 16460402.

 

Parker C, Philp I. Screening for cognitive impairment among older people in black and minority ethnic groups.Age Ageing. 2004 Sep;33(5):447-52. Epub 2004 Jun 24. PubMed PMID: 15217776.

 

Kuslansky G. The Mini-Cog compares well with longer screening tests for detecting dementia in older people.Evid Based Ment Health. 2004 May;7(2):38. PubMed PMID: 15107334.

 

Pharmacy:

Bratzke LC, Moser DK, Pelter MM, Paul SM, Nesbitt TS, Cooper LS, Dracup KA. Evidence-Based Heart Failure Medications and Cognition. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2016 Jan-Feb;31(1):62-8. doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000216. PubMed PMID: 25419943; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4440853.

 

Anderson K, Willmore C, Doran E, Oki N, Vonnahme J, Gates BJ. Cognitive and literacy screening as predictors of ability to fill a pillbox using two pillbox assessment scoring methods. Consult Pharm. 2014;29(5):304-16. doi: 10.4140/TCP.n.2014.304. PubMed PMID: 24849688.

 

Lin JS, O’Connor E, Rossom RC, Perdue LA, Eckstrom E. Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: A systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Nov 5;159(9):601-12. Review. Erratum in: Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jan 7;160(1):72. PubMed PMID: 24145578.

 

Mehuys E, Dupond L, Petrovic M, Christiaens T, Van Bortel L, Adriaens E, De Bolle L, Van Tongelen I, Remon JP, Boussery K. Medication management among home-dwelling older patients with chronic diseases: possible roles for community pharmacists. J Nutr Health Aging. 2012 Aug;16(8):721-6. doi: 10.1007/s12603-012-0028-x. PubMed PMID: 23076515.

 

Geller EJ, Crane AK, Wells EC, Robinson BL, Jannelli ML, Khandelwal CM, Connolly A, Parnell BA, Matthews CA, Dumond JB, Busby-Whitehead J. Effect of anticholinergic use for the treatment of overactive bladder on cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Clin Drug Investig. 2012 Oct 1;32(10):697-705. doi: 10.2165/11635010-000000000-00000. PubMed PMID: 22873491; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3572901.

 

Lam AY, Anderson K, Borson S, Smith FL. A pilot study to assess cognition and pillbox fill accuracy by community-dwelling older adults. Consult Pharm. 2011 Apr;26(4):256-63. doi: 10.4140/TCP.n.2011.256. PubMed PMID: 21486736.

 

Lakey SL, Odegard PS, Sonnett TE, Setter SM, Borson S. The relationship between anticholinergic medications and Mini-Cog scores in older adults receiving home health care. Consult Pharm. 2009 Sep;24(9):673-80. PubMed PMID: 19842783; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4105222.

 

Anderson K, Jue SG, Madaras-Kelly KJ. Identifying patients at risk for medication mismanagement: using cognitive screens to predict a patient’s accuracy in filling a pillbox. Consult Pharm. 2008 Jun;23(6):459-72. PubMed PMID: 18764676.

 

Setter SM, Neumiller JJ, Johnson M, Borson S, Scanlan JM. The Mini-Cog: a rapid dementia screening tool suitable for pharmacists’ use. Consult Pharm. 2007 Oct;22(10):855-61. PubMed PMID: 18198975.

 

 

Instrument/screening Development:

Trongsakul S, Lambert R, Clark A, Wongpakaran N, Cross J. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015 May;15(5):594-600. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12318. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25155468.

 

Steenland NK, Auman CM, Patel PM, Bartell SM, Goldstein FC, Levey AI, Lah JJ. Development of a rapid screening instrument for mild cognitive impairment and undiagnosed dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2008 Nov;15(3):419-27. PubMed PMID: 18997295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2679370.

 

Lessig MC, Scanlan JM, Nazemi H, Borson S. Time that tells: critical clock-drawing errors for dementia screening. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008 Jun;20(3):459-70. Epub 2007 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 17908348; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2704110.

 

Scanlan J, Borson S. The Mini-Cog: receiver operating characteristics with expert and naïve raters. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;16(2):216-22. PubMed PMID: 11241728.

 

Validity and Reliability:

Tsoi KK, Chan JY, Hirai HW, Wong SY, Kwok TC. Cognitive Tests to Detect Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Sep;175(9):1450-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2152. Review. PubMed PMID: 26052687.

 

Trongsakul S, Lambert R, Clark A, Wongpakaran N, Cross J. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015 May;15(5):594-600. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12318. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25155468.

 

Brandt J, Blehar J, Anderson A, Gross AL. Further validation of the Internet-based Dementia Risk Assessment. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;41(3):937-45. doi: 10.3233/JAD-140297. PubMed PMID: 24705550.

 

Lin JS, O’Connor E, Rossom RC, Perdue LA, Eckstrom E. Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults: A systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Nov 5;159(9):601-12. Review. Erratum in: Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jan 7;160(1):72. PubMed PMID: 24145578.

 

Ketelaars L, Pottel L, Lycke M, Goethals L, Ghekiere V, Santy L, Boterberg T, Van Den Noortgate N, Pottel H, Debruyne PR. Use of the Freund clock drawing test within the Mini-Cog as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in elderly patients with or without cancer. J Geriatr Oncol. 2013 Apr;4(2):174-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jgo.2012.10.175. Epub 2012 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 24071542.

 

Hamrick I, Hafiz R, Cummings DM. Use of days of the week in a modified mini-mental state exam (M-MMSE) for detecting geriatric cognitive impairment. J Am Board Fam Med. 2013 Jul-Aug;26(4):429-35. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2013.04.120300. PubMed PMID: 23833158.

 

Hirsch C. ACP Journal Club. The Mini-Cog had sensitivity similar to the longer 3MS for detecting cognitive impairment or dementia. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Oct 16;157(8):JC4-8. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-157-8-201210160-02008. PubMed PMID: 23070510.

 

Milian M, Leiherr AM, Straten G, Müller S, Leyhe T, Eschweiler GW. The Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test, and the Mini-Mental State Examination in a German memory clinic: specificity of separation dementia from depression. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013 Jan;25(1):96-104. doi: 10.1017/S104161021200141X. Epub 2012 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 22906395.

 

Costa D, Severo M, Fraga S, Barros H. Mini-Cog and Mini-Mental State Examination: agreement in a cross-sectional study with an elderly sample. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2012;33(2-3):118-24. doi: 10.1159/000337387. Epub 2012 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 22508578.

 

Milian M, Leiherr AM, Straten G, Müller S, Leyhe T, Eschweiler GW. The Mini-Cog versus the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test in daily clinical practice: screening value in a German Memory Clinic. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 May;24(5):766-74. doi: 10.1017/S1041610211002286. Epub 2011 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 22172089.

 

Mitchell AJ, Malladi S. Screening and case finding tools for the detection of dementia. Part I: evidence-based meta-analysis of multidomain tests. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;18(9):759-82. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181cdecb8. PubMed PMID: 20808118.

 

Ismail Z, Rajji TK, Shulman KI. Brief cognitive screening instruments: an update. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;25(2):111-20. doi: 10.1002/gps.2306. Review. PubMed PMID: 19582756.

 

Borson S, Scanlan JM, Chen P, Ganguli M. The Mini-Cog as a screen for dementia: validation in a population-based sample. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Oct;51(10):1451-4. PubMed PMID: 14511167.

 

Borson S, Scanlan J, Brush M, Vitaliano P, Dokmak A. The mini-cog: a cognitive ‘vital signs’ measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;15(11):1021-7. PubMed PMID: 11113982.

 

Strengths and Limitations:

Tsoi KK, Chan JY, Hirai HW, Wong SY, Kwok TC. Cognitive Tests to Detect Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Sep;175(9):1450-8. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.2152. Review. PubMed PMID: 26052687.

 

Yokomizo JE, Simon SS, Bottino CM. Cognitive screening for dementia in primary care: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2014 Nov;26(11):1783-804. doi: 10.1017/S1041610214001082. Epub 2014 Jul 15. Review. PubMed PMID: 25023857.

 

Milian M, Leiherr AM, Straten G, Müller S, Leyhe T, Eschweiler GW. The Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test, and the Mini-Mental State Examination in a German memory clinic: specificity of separation dementia from depression. Int Psychogeriatr. 2013 Jan;25(1):96-104. doi: 10.1017/S104161021200141X. Epub 2012 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 22906395.

 

Holsinger T, Plassman BL, Stechuchak KM, Burke JR, Coffman CJ, Williams JW Jr. Screening for cognitive impairment: comparing the performance of four instruments in primary care. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Jun;60(6):1027-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03967.x. Epub 2012 May 30. PubMed PMID: 22646750.

 

Milian M, Leiherr AM, Straten G, Müller S, Leyhe T, Eschweiler GW. The Mini-Cog versus the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test in daily clinical practice: screening value in a German Memory Clinic. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012 May;24(5):766-74. doi: 10.1017/S1041610211002286. Epub 2011 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 22172089.

 

Clionsky MI, Clionsky E. Development and validation of the Memory Orientation Screening Test (MOST™): A better screening test for dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010 Dec;25(8):650-6. doi: 10.1177/1533317510386216. PubMed PMID: 21131671.

 

Chen CY, Leung KK, Chen CY. A quick dementia screening tool for primary care physicians. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011 Jul-Aug;53(1):100-3. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2010.06.008. Epub 2010 Jul 16. PubMed PMID: 20638142.

 

Tappen RM, Rosselli M, Engstrom G. Evaluation of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) in cognitive screening across four American ethnic groups. Clin Neuropsychol. 2010 May;24(4):646-61. doi: 10.1080/13854040903482855. PubMed PMID: 20473827.

 

Ismail Z, Rajji TK, Shulman KI. Brief cognitive screening instruments: an update. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;25(2):111-20. doi: 10.1002/gps.2306. Review. PubMed PMID: 19582756.

 

Kaufer DI, Williams CS, Braaten AJ, Gill K, Zimmerman S, Sloane PD. Cognitive screening for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in assisted living: comparison of 3 tests. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2008 Oct;9(8):586-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2008.05.006. Epub 2008 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 19083293.

 

Milne A, Culverwell A, Guss R, Tuppen J, Whelton R. Screening for dementia in primary care: a review of the use, efficacy and quality of measures. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008 Oct;20(5):911-26. doi: 10.1017/S1041610208007394. Epub 2008 Jun 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 18533066.

 

Wilber ST, Lofgren SD, Mager TG, Blanda M, Gerson LW. An evaluation of two screening tools for cognitive impairment in older emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2005 Jul;12(7):612-6. PubMed PMID: 15995092.

 

Borson S, Scanlan JM, Watanabe J, Tu SP, Lessig M. Simplifying detection of cognitive impairment: comparison of the Mini-Cog and Mini-Mental State Examination in a multiethnic sample. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 May;53(5):871-4. PubMed PMID: 15877567.

 

Kuslansky G. The Mini-Cog compares well with longer screening tests for detecting dementia in older people.Evid Based Ment Health. 2004 May;7(2):38. PubMed PMID: 15107334.

 

Lorentz WJ, Scanlan JM, Borson S. Brief screening tests for dementia. Can J Psychiatry. 2002 Oct;47(8):723-33. Review. PubMed PMID: 12420650.

 

Miscellaneous:

Flanagan NM, Spencer G. Informal caregivers and detection of delirium in postacute care: a correlational study of the confusion assessment method (CAM), confusion assessment method-family assessment method (CAM-FAM) and DSM-IV criteria. Int J Older People Nurs. 2015 Dec 16. doi: 10.1111/opn.12106. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26669904.

 

McCarthy VL, Cassidy K. Multisite recruitment and data collection among older adults: exploring methods to conserve human and financial resources. J Nurs Meas. 2012;20(2):142-52. PubMed PMID: 22988784.

 

Carolan Doerflinger DM. How to try this: the mini-cog. Am J Nurs. 2007 Dec;107(12):62-71; quiz 71-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 18049065.

 

Tariska P, Paksy A. [Mini-Cog: a simple method for very brief screening of mental decline]. Orv Hetil. 2003 Apr 27;144(17):803-9. Hungarian. PubMed PMID: 12762066.